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WASSCE 2016 Tells The Novels We Read

This post should be of concern to book-lovers, literature teachers or
literature-in-english students within the West African region.

As a teacher, teaching literature-in-english, I began to view the ways
in which, I've been choosing the novels I read these days, I realized
that some factors or forces are the determinants and those forces or
factors are WASSCE, NECO and JAMB; actually this might sounds somehow
lame or funny.

Judging by my tight schedules and long process it will take to
determine the right novel to choose among billions of novels appearing
in book-stores each day, picking the novels that is required by
Examination Council has been the only saving grace.

Seriously, it amazes how changes in syllabus have been shifting my
reading attention and that of other literature readers from books to
books. At a certain time, our attentions were on books like: "Twelfth
Night" by William Shakespeare, "The Gods Are Not To Blame" by Ola
Rotimi; later the baton went to "Anthills Of The Savannah" by Chinua
Achebe, "Tess Of The D'Urberville" by Thomas Hardy; from there, it was
passed to "Sons And Daughters" by Joe De Graft, "A Man For All
Seasons" by Robert Bolt; then to "The Importance Of Being Earnest" by
Oscar Wilde, "Women Of Owu" by Femi Osofisan; now my reading attention
is on "She Stoop To Conquer" by Oliver Goldsmith, "Harvest Of
Corruption" by Frank Ogodo Ogbeche; and so the transition will keep

In spite of all these impromptu reading choices, all the books
recommended by WASSCE, NECO and JAMB have never for once, lost their
true taste and value of a well crafted book; and on top of the fact
that the authors are genius, all the books have remained educative and

Monster Tomato

I found
A monster tomato
So soft as tomato
So red as tomato
Emits water like tomato
You can wash it
You can slice it
You can lick it

You can never fry it
You can never boil it

You can only give it koboko
What exactly is this tomato?

Whatever your answer is to
This my riddle
You'll always be wrong
If kids around
'Cos you'll sound so corrupt
Naming precisely
This monster tomato
I found.

Samuel C. Enunwa aka samueldpoetry
(the funny Leo with wings flying)

The Place Called Egusi Village

In Warri as I was told
There was a place called Egusi village.
Have you ever ever heard of it
Or ever been told?

Quickly quickly
The sleeves of my long-sleeve
I began to fold,
Hoping there would be a place
In Warri called Eba too;
All eyes around looked like a fool.

Wait and hear of me, the truth,
Mr. Ezioka was obi of Egusi village.
So I took to sojourn in Egusi Village_
Sweet smilings
With beautiful meals with
Palm-wine telling the taste of authenticity,
They welcomed me warmly

Introduced me to village dignitries
Samueldpoetry!! Samueldpoetry!!!
Village whole was hailing me;
Mr. Oha the chief priest greeted me.
Two beautiful maidens dancing before me so sweetly
Like a slippery ogbolo soup,
Their waist beads goaded me to woo.
Mr. Fufu, the chief hunter
Brought me a grasscutter takeaway too.

I must confess publicly saying:
"The funeral of obi of Egusi village
Shall never die in my sweet memories."

In short, my stay was a tasty delight.

Samuel C. Enunwa aka samueldpoetry
(the lovely Leo with wings flying)

Adulthood Traits In The Panic Of Growing Older By Lenrie Peters

The Panic Of Growing Older By Lenrie Peters is a poem that revealed
some common traits of ambitious adults. Of the many adulthood
characters within the poem, we'll point out just four.

These are numbered below:
(1) High Hope for Achievement "stilled by hope/ of gigantic success" (line 6-7)

(2) Weariness "a sudden throb of pain" (line 10)

(3) Futility of Efforts "having nothing to show" (line 12) "nothing to
show the world" (line 20)

(4) Hopelessness:-
"But science give hope
of twice three score
and ten. Hope
is not a grain of sand
inner satisfaction
dwindles sharp
blades of expectation" (line 25-31)

Lenrie Peters was a Gambian poet born 1932, according to an internet
source, he was a member and President of the West African Examination
Council (WAEC) 1985-91; and as well a member of the jury for the
Literary prize of the Commonwealth in 1995.

Use Of Imageries In Piano And Drums By Gabriel Okara

Imageries were used by Gabriel Okara to diffuse the sybolism created
in the title of his poem "Piano And Drums" in order to make the
message of the poem lighter to the readers.

First of, he gave a sound image of his past with few lines in the
first stanza. Taking a look at line one to five of the poem:
"When at break of day at a riverside
I hear jungle drums telegraphing
the mystic rhythm, urgent, raw
like bleeding flesh, speaking of
primal youth and the beginning,"

In second stanza, the poet explained the effect of recollecting the
past. He claimed that his blood rippled, turned torrent, toppled the
years and at once, he was back in his mother's lap a baby.

With imageries he spoke of how his present life was leading him to an
unknown destination (a complex future) so complex and "coaxing,
diminuendo, counterpoint, crescendo." according to line twenty two and
twenty three of the third stanza.

And the complexity and confusion of the poet's past and present left
him in a state of dillema.

Examine The Poetic Devices In Vanity By Birago Diop

Birago Diop was born a Senegal and educated in Senegal and France. He
was once in his life time appointed Ambassador to Tunisia in 1960.

His poem "Vanity" was spiced with many sweet poetic devices and few of
which will be examined here.

Starting with imagery, we can see "the black depths of our plaintive
throats" in line fourteen which was creating a clearer picture of the
degree of mournfulness that the victims carried in their hearts. In
another line of the poem was this imagery "Sad complaining voices of

Repetition and rhetorical question were woven together to make the
lines of the poem flow better. Here are instances of lines carrying
both repetitions and rhetorical question. "What eyes will watch our
loud mouths?" and "What eyes will watch our bad mouths?" both lines
are repeated rhetorical questions.

The repetition of consonant sounds within the lines of a poem which is
defined as alliteration was not left out of the poem. "Did not
understand our dead" in line twenty five was an alliteration. In line
eight "what eyes will watch" was as well, an alliteration.

Metaphor also occurred in line four where the victims' voices were
compared to that of beggars "voices of beggar"; in line nine, "the
laughter of big children" was also a metaphor.

Major Concern Of Sir Walter Raleigh In The Soul's Errand

Sir Walter Raleigh has always been an emotional poet. His poem; The
Soul's Errand, took major parts of human activities with a serious
perspective of an inspector sent from beyond to place correction tag
on things; the poet nailed matters in the head.
The poetic message of vanity upon vanity, being vanity, entered the
nineth stanza with the poet proving the falsity and vanity inherent in
the field of physics, arts, science and medicine by posturing
science-is-king "boldness" and sees the so-called expert knowledges
(skill) as nothing but one full of "pretension".

Just to mention few, the poet was mainly worried that institutions
upheld the reverse of the fundamental values of their existence.
Religious, and secular institutions as well as ethical values came up
for censure. Included courts, the potentates, the church, honour, love
and beauty. On his deathbed, he asked the soul to pay visit to each
and everyone of these perverters. While out at it, he must "give would
the lie as nothing is done right anywhere in the world." actef as a
refrain and highlighted the poet's preoccupation.
The poet also believed that the court was supposed to be a shining
example of justice. However, it seemed to be the experience of the
poet that the court was both corrupt and unjust.

Instead of continuing to hole the scales between right and wrong as
the last hope for justice, it ironically "shines like rotten

How Do You Understand Ambush By Gbemisola Adeoti

(1) It's a socio-political poem with chaotic environment as its subject matter

(2) It's full of metaphors, imageries, repetitions and symbolisms

(3) "The land is a giant hawk" is an example of metaphor in the poem
"swallows the sinker" is an alliteration "Peter on empty ship" is an
allusion "The land lie patiently ahead awaiting" is a
personification, "land" "giant" "Peter" are repeated in the poem.

(4) It's a four stanza poem, simple diction, unhappy mood with rebelous tone

(5) It hold a rural setting where the characters and events of the
poem are forest related

(6) The poet is a nigerian of Yoruba tribe, a lecturer at Obafemi
Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, A member Of Association Of Nigerian
Authors (ANA)

(7) The poem has a plot speaking of how human efforts of a particular
place referred to as "The land" was made futile and the people
deceived and endangered by deadly agents the poet cloned with symbols
of wild animals.

(8) Among the themes of the poem are danger, hopelessness,
helplessness, deceitfulness.

(9) The title of the poem, the wild animals ( giant hawk, giant whale,
saber-toothed tiger) are prove of danger. "aborting dreams of good
catch/ fisher turn home at dusk... on empty ship" is a prove
hopelessness in the poem. "a giant hawk that courts unceasing
disaster..." is a prove of helplessness.

Denotation And Connotation Of Letter To Martha 17 By Dennis Brutus

An imprisoned man took delight and interest in things hardly seen and
things unseen. He wished he could see the sun but such was impossible
because the prison fluorescents had "blotted them out" according to
line 13.

The moving clouds and the birds he could see through the gape of the
prison ventilation made him wondered where the birds were going or
coming from, he further thought of who else "their exuberant
acrobatics" and aeronautics would delight.

Those objects made the poet understood how important freedom is to the
animates and the inanimates.
"cliches about the freedom of the birds
and their absolute freedom from care
become meaningful

and the greceful unimpeded motion of the clouds
_a kind of music, poetry and dance_
sends delicate rhythms tremoring through the flesh
and fantasies course easily through the mind:
_where are they going
where will they dissolve
will they be seen by those at home
and whom will they delight?" (line 19-29)

The poem central message is freedom and <a
rel="nofollow">naijapoets blog</a> discussed the themes of the poem in

Analysis Of Women Of Owu Novel

The play centres on the aftermath of the destruction of the city of
Owu. The combined forces of Ijebu, Ife, and Oyo mercenaries invaded
the city for seven years. Erelu, the queen of Owu in company of the
noble women of Owu lament and bewail the destruction of Owu. As the
women under the leadership of Erule lament their ordeal, curse their
captors and become pessimistic about their future, somewhere, the
goddess, Lawumi, discusses with her son, Anlugbua the condition of
Owu. She blames Owu for being insensitive of history. They attacked,
sold and breached the law hence, the invasion siege and destruction.

The generals, after the destruction and ruin, settle in their camp to
discuss the sharing of their mouthpiece. As they discuss, Gesinde
arrives to announce that generals have been advised by Balogun Derin
to crush the head of that child so as to preserve their own bright
future. Gesinde arrives and orders the women to get ready for a
Caravan to depart out of the rui<!--more-->ned Owu city. In the
process, Erelu becomes possessed by the god Anlugbua who judges the
people for their disloyalty and accepts the women plea and remorse.
She dies on the Owu soil.

(1) The roles of gods in the affair of the living
(2) Revenge
(3) Love and Reconciliation

(1) Erelu, though, intelligent and emotional. In her deep emotions,
she cursed the allied forces and predicted that they won't return home
peacefully. Erelu is fearless and defiant even in the midst of defeat.
She is a loving mother. Erelu likes to shift blames, instead of
blaming herself for nursing her child Djumo to manhood and maturity
She rather blamed the woman they captured and separated her from the
real husband and gave Dejumo to marry.
(2) Gesinde is thorough in his information. We see Gesinde as a
cool-headed soldier who eschews violence and bitterness in the pursuit
of his vocation. We can appreciate his good nature character when he
permits the women to spend a brief time with Erelu in her soil before
joining the Caravan. We can now appreciate the obiquitous character of
Gesinde, his humility, humane desposition, dignity and intelligence as
a soldier and devotion to duty
(3) The women of Owu at first act as information officers. They give
the details of the ruins as they discuss with their ancestral god,
Anlugbua. The women in most cases act as advisers. They advise the
Anlugbua who they mistake for a strange old man to flee the scene,
else the soldiers will slay him because they do not spare males
whether young or old. They are mourners who constantly lament the ruin
of their city and ill-motive of freedom the allied forces give. The
women are undaunted; they attacked even their ancestral gods and
goddesses. They have sharp retentive memory, in a flashback they
recalled the seven years siege and their ordeals.
(4) Anlugbua is the ancestral god of Owu and the guardian of their
destiny. He appeared after the destruction of Owu by the allied
forces, he met the women on their way.<!--more-->

Examination By Olumide Babalola

Gird up your loins
Like the soldier of fortune

Be at alert
Like Ali in the boxing ring

Do not read when it's time
But read before the time.

The earlier the better;
The earliest the best

The horror of the ink
Is like dungeon's

Failure to prepare;
Is the preparation to fail.

(c) copyright Olumide Babalola

(Question 1)
How many lines has the poem?
(Answer=) twelve lines.

(Question 2)
"Failure to prepare: Is the preparation to fail." Explain the above expression.
If a student does not prepare ahead for his/her examinations, he/she must be ready to receive poor result.

Human Selfishness In Building The Nation By Henry Barlow

"I drove the Permanent Secretary back
He yawned many times in back of the car
Then to keep awake, he suddenly asked,
Did you have any lunch, friend?
I replied looking straight ahead
And secretly smiling at his belated concern
That I had not, but was slimming!" (according to stanza 3 of the poem)

The stanza has a crystal clear picture of human selfishness where the so-called superiors always exercise their supremacy without considering the fact that all human are human and should b

Overview Of Going To Heaven By Emily Dickinson

Going to heaven is an elegy with three stanzas, simple rhyme scheme, simple diction, and a straightforward message.

According to the first stanza of the poem, the poet was very glad that she would be going home (heaven). She told her readers not to ask how she would get to heaven. She agreed that such excitement w

Primitiveness, Equality, Exposure And Acceptance In The Negro Speaks Of Rivers By Langston Hughes

The Negro Speaks Of Rivers by Langston Hughes has remained one of the very complex poems to explain, inspite of the complexity, this post will examine few of its themes; primitiveness, equality, exposure and acceptance.

One of the ways poets make reference to history is through the use of symbolism. Hughes made reference to his primitive being by relating himself with "rivers ancient as the world and older than the flow of human blood in human veins". He made mention of Euphrates, Congo, Nile, Mississippi which are very ancient as he claimed.


Primitiveness, Equality, Exposure And Acceptance In The Negro Speaks Of Rivers By Langston Hughes

The Negro Speaks Of Rivers by Langston Hughes has remained one of the very complex poems to explain, inspite of the complexity, this post will examine few of its themes; primitiveness, equality, exposure and acceptance.

One of the ways poets make reference to history is through the use of symbolism. Hughes made reference to his primitive being by relating himself with "rivers ancient as the world and older than the flow of human blood in human veins". He made mention of Euphrates, Congo, Nile, Mississippi which are very ancient as he claimed.


Vivid Explanation Of Rejoice By Gladys Casely Hayford

"Gladys Casely-Hayford, who's pen name "Acquah Laluah", was a Sierra Leonean. She had an interesting career, having been a student in the United Kingdom, a professional dancer and a teacher in Sierra Leone and Ghana. She died in Ghana in 1960" according to the statement from one of the Anthologies in my bookself.

Gladys Hayford loved her origin so much that she lived the rest of her life writing about Africa and striving to make it better. Her poems relates to Africa including the poem titled "Rejoice".

Rejoice is a single stanza poem with gratitude as its subject matter. The poet used a second person pronoun to address her African readers or Africa in general, she gave Africans the reasons they should be of joyous and grateful heart and told them they are of "great nation".

The poem began with a line that can be regarded as tautology "Rejoice and shout with laughter" the first and the second stanzas became a refrain in the poem and "black or brown," "great" were repeated in the poem as well. "black or brown" also was a symbolism used for representing African and Non-African. Alliterations were in lines 3 and 4 "God has been so gracious" "black or brown" rhetorical question in lines 7-8 "For where would spring the flowers/ If God took

New Man Now

Hello! Follows on the road
And those at home and abroad

Come hear the true me I'm oozing
Like blood oozing off a vampire's mouth
In this my state of discombobulation.

Candid confession,
Bad was my overture back then but
These days and age
Seem I've aborted such behaviors
Now I hate to see people cry.

Cry of theirs weep my heart with bludgeon
O God, what is this I have become?

These days I care more
When suppose to care less
I give more when to keep more
I hate to see suffering souls on the street
Their pities place me in their shoelaced
Abuses no longer affect me and

Troublemakers keep tempting me
I keep pouring them oil of peace
O God, what is this new me?
What is this, I have become?

I used to be bad
What is this new spell
Maturity has bestowed my soul kindness?
Now adays, I miss bad things
I miss anger
I miss lying
I miss cheating
I miss arguing
I miss misleading
I miss the old samueldpoetry
Before becoming the Leo with wings flying
O God, I'm such a new man now
And that's the confession;

Samuel C. Enunwa aka samueldpoetry
(the Leo with wings soaring)

Grammatical complexity, if applied with moderation, adds beauty to poetry the same way it does to drama and prose; it creates better engagement whereby the reader with lookup words in the dictionary to have better understanding of the poem. Few words and lines in the poem just read, will require readers opening their dictionaries.

Analysis Of A Recollection By Frances Cornford

Frances Cornford (1886-1960) remembered an instance of someone announced dead when he was a very young boy; the person was a friend to his father and to him. He used to pay them visits until suddenly announced dead, while the adults were unhappy of the man's death, the poet was happy he

Explain With Examples, The Use Of Synonym In Vanity By Birago Diop

What Is Synonym?
Semantically, synonyms are words or phrases or expressions similar or of the same meaning.

From the poem "Vanity", we can rely on the use of repetitions as our yardstick.

(To learn more about the use of repetition in Vanity by Birago Diop, we recommend: 3 Major Poetic Devices In Vanity By Birago Diop; the post migh

Analysis Of An Irish Airman Foresees His Death

An Irish Airman Foresees His Death by W. B. Yeats is a poem of war where the speaker or the voice in the poem opened-up to his readers that his end will soon come through the flying of war plan. He claimed that he was flying the war jet for personal delight, not for love of fighting or for the hatred he had for his opponents and he gave instances to support his claim: "Nor law, nor duty bade me fight/ Nor public m

I Have God In Me

I watched through the beauty of my window tonight
As God watching through the window of heaven but
All I see is sliding adverts watching over the overhead bridge
Like bodyguard watching over a celebrity
Darkness has erased the beauty of coloured things
And all I see is headlights and rearlights
Racing to and fro the double tarred road
The one that caught attention most
Was a resurrected locomotive with
Roughly panel-beaters' perforated body
She trudged the road rumbling like
An angry thunder rumbling to rain
With her lousy silencer making
Public nuisance of herself_
I watched through the beauty of my window tonight
Then I realized
I've got God in me
I'm grateful for this, Lord.

Samuel C. Enunwa aka samueldpoetry
(the Leo with wings soaring)

Simile occurred in three different lines of the poem above. Simile can be defined as a figure of speech in which one thing is compared to another with the use of "like" or "as".

Chase To Checkmate

Look around you every each day
There is always a chase to mate.

From street to street, cock is chasing a hen to mate,
From shed to shed, ram is chasing a ewe,
On fences, you'll see agama chasing lizard feminine,
Check the trees around thee,
You'll see the he-birds chasing the she-birds
And he-bees chasing the she-bees and
He-flies chasing the she-flies and
He-butterflies chasing the she-butterflies;
Omolola, my chase and checkmating,
Some fool-folks say it's despate.

Look around you every each day
There is always a chase to mate.

Samuel C. Enunwa aka samueldpoetry
(the Leo with wings uphigh)

Couplet simply according to the Oxford English Advanced Learners' Dictionary is two successive lines of verse, equal in length and with rhyme: Heroic couplet is with lines of five feet and ten syllables.

The poem above begins with a couplet and end with a couplet in form of a refrain.

Silence Is The Best Answer

It takes water to murder the rage of fire.
It takes rain to restrain the thirst of harmattan.
It takes silence to chase away foolishness here and there.

People will make rumour their gold,
Will blow you abuses like breezes_
Do not quarrel, do not argue, do not fiat;
You were taught in your primary school,
Silence is the best answer for a fool.

Samuel C. Enunwa aka samueldpoetry
(the Leo with wing flying)

Anaphora is contained in the first stanza of this poem.
Anaphora is a poetic device that consists of repeating a
sequence of words at the beginnings of lines in a poem, thereby lending them emphasis. It is contrast to epistrophe (or epiphora) which repeats words at the ends of lines in a poem. Example is "Let America Be America Again" by Langston Hughes (1902-1967).

November Is Like Forever

Let me not be silent of my love
Let me speak of my love
Omolola, my sweet Tomtom;
Each night your sunlight warms my heart,
Each morn I see moonlight in your eyes
How can I cope these two months?

Whatever Omolola does, she does right.
Omolola is this, Omolola is that
Omolola always wake me from my dreaming saying
"My darling, why do you keep saying
My name in your dreaming?"

You traveled yesterday, your
Kisses still remind me of true kisses
Staying in touch is not enough.
Come! Come quick!
My feelings starving your touch already
Omolola, come in touch.

If over-smoking won't cause diarrhea,
Over dependency on your touch
Won't cause me malaria;
November is like forever

Omolola, come home,
I can't be watching these Vampire Diaries alone.

Samuel C. Enunwa aka samueldpoetry
(the love Leo with wings soaring)

Happy Independence Day Nigeria

Happy Independence Day and Thank You...

To All Viewers and Registered Users of,

To Mr. Jegede for financial support and making a reality,

To Mr. Akinov Akinleye Akinseye for financial support and motivations,

To Mrs. Bamigboye for financial support and encouragement,

To Miss Ruth Enunwa for image provisions and material support,

To Mr. Eric Enunwa for financial support and encouragement,

To Mr. Onyekachukwu Enunwa for financial support and encouragement,

To Mr. Oladipupo Samuel Adegun for financial support and success orientation,

To Mr. Daniel A. Aribido for financial support, innovative contributions, and contents dissemination,

To Nigeria for clocking 55yrs in peace and harmony,

Finally, to God, ancestors and the deities for uniting to make everything a reality;

Happy Independence Day to you all and Thank You heartily.

Samuel C. Enunwa aka samueldpoetry
(the Leo with wings flying 10000 feet)

Happy Birthday Mrs. Aribido

Mrs. Aribido,
My dark and lovely mother!
So dark and lovely like a beauty cream,
You're such a beautiful queen
So beautiful as if you're still 22.
Oyam, my mom, I love you,
We, your children, love you;
We truly do.
That's why we gather together
To sing this song for you:

"Happy Birthday to you
Happy Birthday to you
Happy Birthday to you_ Mother
Happy Birthday to you.

We wish you
Long live and prosperity
Hip! Hip!! Hip!!! Hurray!"

(Wishes From Your Son:- Aribido A. Daniel.)


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