RECYCLATES AND RECYCLING TECHNIQUES
Recyclates can simply mean, those materials that can be revived from their condition waste to useful usable materials after successfully undergone a renewal process; such process, in another expression, is called recycling technique.
According to History and Philosophy of Science by Olusegun Ogundiran, the following are recyclates and the techniques used in recycling them:
"(1) Concrete: Concrete aggregate collection from demolition sites is put through a crushing machine often along with asphalt, brick, dirt and rocks. Smaller pieces of concrete are used as gravel for new construction and as dry aggregate for brand new concrete if free of contamination.
(2) Batteries: The variation in size and type makes their recycling extremely difficult. They must first be sorted into similar kind and each requires an individual recycling process. Older batteries contain mercury and cadmium which are harmful materials.
(3) Biodegradable Waste: Biodegradable waste can be recycled into useful material by biological decomposition such as home composting involving collection of green waste and sending to large scale composting plants.
(4) Printer Ink Catridges And Toners: Printer ink catridges can be recycled once they are sorted into different brands and model which are the resold to the companies that created these catridge for refilling the ink reservoir which can be sold back to consumers. Same is applicable to toner catridges.
(5) Glass: Glass, bottles and jars are gathered via curbside collection schemes and bottle banks, where the glass may be sorted into colour categories. The collected glass cullet is taken to a glass recycling plant where it is monitored for purity and contaminant. The cullet is crushed and added to a raw material mix in a melting furnace. It is then mechanically blown or moulded into new jars or bottles. Glass can be recycled indefinitely as its structure does not deteriorate when processed.
(6) Paper: Recycled paper is made from waste paper, usually mixed with fresh wood pulp. If the paper contains ink, it must be re-inked which also removes fillers, clays, and fibre fragment. If everyone recycled their newspaper each day it would save 41,000trees. Almost all paper can be recycled. Paper can only be recycled a finite number of times due to the shortening of paper fibres making the material loss versatile.
(7) Plastic: Plastic recycling is the process of recovering the scrap or waste plastics and reprocessing the material into useful products.
Plastic poses unique challenges as each cary a resin identification code and must be sorted before they can be recycled though this can be expensive.
(8) Textile: In recycling textile, one must consider what the material consists of. Most textiles are composites of cotton (biodegradable material) and synthetic plastic. These composition effects its durability and method of recycling.
Fibre reclamation mill sort textiles according to fibre type and colour. Colour sorting eliminates the need to redye the recycled textiles. The textiles are shredded into shoddy fibres and blended with other selected fibres depending on the intended end use of the recycled yarn. The blended mixture is carded to clean and mix the fibre spun ready for weaving or knitting. The fibres can also be compressed for mattress production."